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Objective Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used, and their use is associated with increased risk of adverse events.
However, whether PPI use is associated with excess risk of death is unknown.
Risk of death associated with PPI use was higher in analyses adjusted for high-dimensional propensity score (HR 1.16, CI 1.13 to 1.18), in two-stage residual inclusion estimation (HR 1.21, CI 1.16 to 1.26) and in 1:1 time-dependent propensity score-matched cohort (HR 1.34, CI 1.29 to 1.39).
e GFR was the outpatient e GFR value within and most proximate to the end of the assessment period.
Number of outpatient serum creatinine measurements and number of hospitalisations were accumulated during the assessment period.
Among new PPI users, there was a graded association between the duration of exposure and the risk of death.
Conclusions The results suggest excess risk of death among PPI users; risk is also increased among those without gastrointestinal conditions and with prolonged duration of use.